1. General concept: refers to the natural landscape and human landscape of a region or city.
2. Specific area concept: refers to the regional landscape in the natural geographical division.
3. Type concept: refers to isolated sections, classified according to the similarity of their external features, such as the landscape of the building, 44 landscapes, landscapes, grassland landscapes, rivers and forests.
Natural landscapes that are indirectly, slightly or occasionally affected by humans, and whose natural appearance has not changed significantly, such as mountains, polar regions, tropical rain forests and certain nature reserves.
Human landscape, also known as cultural landscape culrure landscape
The scene caused by human activities is a complex of human landscapes composed of natural scenery, fields, buildings, villages, factories, mines, cities, vehicles and roads with main characters and costumes.
Night landscape (referred to as night scene) landscape in night (nightscape)
At night, the natural or cultural landscape of the day is reproduced through the ecliptic, moonlight, starlight and light.
Night illumination nightscape lighting
Refers to the outdoor landscape space or landscape nightscape illumination in addition to stadiums, construction sites and outdoor security lighting. The objects of illumination include buildings, structures, plazas, roads and bridges, airports, stations and terminals, places of interest, gardens, rivers, commercial streets and advertising signs, and urban municipal facilities. The landscape of the illuminated objects is reshaped and organically combined into a harmonious, beautiful and distinctive night landscape to represent the night image of a city or region.
Note: The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) refers to the "Exterior Lingting for the decoration of the night time urban landscape".
Viewing positing, viewing point
A viewing location with the best location and viewing angle.
The distance between people by sight. It is also called a certain spatial distance required to view the scene. According to experimental research, the human eye and the field of view are within a cone of 60 degrees, and the viewing distance is one to three times the height of the scene. The effect is better, less than it. There is a sense of urgency, and there is a sense of distance when it is greater than it.
Close view , human scale
Close to the scenes seen by the viewpoints, or the scenes seen by the people's vision, such as the partial (detail) landscape of the building facade.
Medium view, streel scale
Views that are seen from a location far from the point of view, or that are viewed in a larger field of view, such as a panorama of a building or structure, on a "street" scale.
Far view, city scale
Keep away from the sights seen by the sights, or the scenes in the big field of view and the environment around it.
Static viewing staric viewing
At a particular viewing point, you can observe the night scene effects of various scenes.
Dynamic view, mobile view
The viewers enjoy the near-distance, far-sightedness, admiration, and overlooking in the movement, so as to obtain the night scene effect of watching the scenery in different places.
Landscape, landscape, landscape
People touch the scene, associate with some kind of deepening the connotation of the scene (meaning), and integrate the impression of the scene into the thoughts and feelings, forming a landscape art realm.
Compared with soft landscapes, it meets the requirements of complex urban life and adapts to the landscape facilities used by many people, such as buildings, streets, roads, bridges, squares and urban municipal landscape facilities. There are many materials that can be used as hard landscapes, such as concrete, masonry, metal and glass. In the design of the hard landscape, the texture and texture characteristics of the material are fully utilized.
Soft landscape, vegetation landscape
Relative to a hard landscape, in a certain area, the vegetation covered by the ground and the landscape formed by the forest. Green areas, trees and flowers are all part of the soft landscape.
Creation landscpe of lighting
According to the celebration activities or specific theme requirements, in the square or place where the crowd is concentrated, the lighting will be used to create a variety of decorative and styling lighting landscapes.
The landscape forms a clear image of the night view of the gallery on its background nightscape presentation
It can truly and accurately express the night lighting design, and has a certain artistic night view.
Night skyline skyline (outline) of urban
With the sky as the background, through the city's buildings and structures, the night lights of the mountains and rivers show the rhythm of the city's ups and downs, and describe the nightscape boundary line (or the corridor line) of the whole city's overall appearance and characteristics.
Xiao Huigan, Zhang Shaogang, Institute of Physics, China Academy of Building Research, from "Consumer Daily China Lighting Special"
Basic concept landscape landscape