January 16, 2021

Thinking on the design of landscape lighting scheme

Since the development of urban landscape lighting, lighting designers from all over the world have accumulated rich experience. All aspects of planning, design, construction, acceptance, management, and evaluation seem to have certain patterns and norms to follow, and many excellent typical cases have also emerged. However, when we come back, it is necessary to think rationally, carefully summarize, and examine whether the planning is as implemented, whether the design meets the requirements of the specification, whether the safety and reliability of the project is fully met, and whether the energy-saving indicators meet the national requirements. Wait. From the design point of view, whether the concept of design is innovative, whether the program is optimized, especially whether the textual representation of the program meets the requirements, whether the design text of the plan is standardized, standardized, and so on.

Landscape Lighting

This paper considers the issues that should be paid attention to in the formulation of urban landscape lighting design.

Landscape lighting design should be considered

Consider functional function

The image of the building should reflect its functionality. For example, government agencies should be more solemn and should not be as commercial as a shopping mall; residential areas should create a quiet atmosphere; entertainment venues such as dance halls should have a cheerful and lively feeling, so at night When lighting is used to express the image of a building, the corresponding atmosphere and artistic style should be created. The style of the luminaire should also take into account the style and social and historical background of the object being photographed.

Consider facing materials

The feeling of light and darkness of an object depends mainly on the light intensity reflected from the object to the human eye. When the surface reflection coefficient of the material is very low, or the spectrum reflected by the surface of the material does not match the color of the projected light (such as hitting green light in red) On the wall), increasing the luminous flux to increase the brightness often fails to achieve the desired effect and wastes energy. Therefore, the nature of the facing material in landscape lighting design cannot be ignored.

Consider the key parts

The lighting of the key parts should be designed according to their characteristics, which not only can highlight the key parts but also have more individuality.

Consider the relationship between monomer and the whole

Landscape lighting design must have a master plan in order to make the whole group focus, set off, and have a sense of rhythm. The whole city has style and taste. In order to achieve this goal, the design of the monomer should have a holistic concept. The intensity and light color of the light should be in harmony with the surrounding environment and the position of the irradiated object in the environment, and meet the requirements of the plan. At present, some units emphasize their own innovations, regardless of the surrounding. The environment, arbitrarily increasing the illuminance, abusing the colored light, easily causing waste and destroying the overall effect, is not allowed. The main management department shall make requests and restrictions to each unit according to the plan.

The urban night landscape is composed of various landscape elements, which form related relationships, such as the logical relationship between elements and elements, the topological relationship, and the relationship between elements and the whole. These relationships cannot be measured by a model or a type. The urban nightscape lighting environment is characterized by a large scope. The visual range of the public observer cannot cover the entire urban lighting landscape at a certain moment. In terms of forming an impression, the order is partial before the whole, in forming a partial impression and overall feeling. There is a time difference.

We should fully understand and grasp the relationship between urban landscape elements and the relationship of reincarnation, and skillfully use the coordinated changes of light and color and strength. The layout of the lighting should be reasonable, overall coordination, and the key points should be detailed and detailed.

Consider the color of light

The same light color is illuminated on objects of different colors, and the colors are different. Especially in some environments, the color is rich and beautiful during daytime viewing, and the color light projection should be especially careful. In addition, since the light at night is much darker than the daytime light, people's response to the light color is different depending on the basic illuminance of the environment. For example, during the day, a large piece of green space gives people a feeling of youth, vitality and vitality. However, a green light at night often causes a feeling of darkness and coldness. At the same time, the color light projection is often large in the building, and the size of the color patch has a certain influence on the human's psychological reaction, but the appropriate light color can also enhance the lighting effect, such as projecting different parts of a building. Different lights emphasize the level of the building. Therefore, it is necessary to use colored light with caution to prevent color imbalance.

Consider safety and reliability

In the design and construction of landscape lighting, the lighting equipment, electrical equipment and control system should ensure the maturity and reliability of the technology, and pay special attention to safety. Safety means not causing harm to the surrounding person or damage to the environment. Safety also includes the mechanical strength, electrical, construction, operation, and installation safety of the luminaire itself and its power distribution unit. The arrangement of the lamps should be properly concentrated according to the situation, so that the laying of the lines can be relatively concentrated. The location of the luminaire should be easy to install and maintain. Otherwise, it is not easy to repair once there is a problem, or it is prone to safety accidents during installation and maintenance. At the same time, we should not only ignore the lighting effects at night and ignore the observation of the lamps during the day. And pay attention to protection, the protection here includes natural disasters and man-made disasters and animal damage, damage and loss of lamps.

Consider glare problems

At night, when the strong light is projected within 45° of the human line of sight, it will cause glare, which makes it impossible for people to distinguish objects, affect walking and watching, and even cause traffic accidents. Therefore, the direction of light projection should avoid people's sight. On the other hand, it is also necessary to prevent light pollution caused by lighting and affect people's normal life and work. Such as investing in the room to influence the rest, and investing in the sky to influence astronomical observations.

Consider energy saving

There are many ways to illuminate the night landscape. It can be projected from the outside or inside. If you project from the outside, you should pay attention to the lamp position when designing the building. Pay attention to shortening the optical path to reduce the power consumption without affecting the daytime. Looking at it. The internal light transmission is more closely related to the architectural design. Therefore, new construction architects should consider these issues in a unified manner.

Consider hierarchical control

It should be preset to be controlled by weekdays or festivals. It should have complete artistic effects under different control conditions, which can save energy.

Consider viewing

The location, style and color of landscape lighting will cause damage to the city's cityscape during the day without considering the image of the day. If you think about it well, you can make the city's cityscape brighter. The lamp position should be reasonably designed according to the actual situation. Try to see the light that does not see the light. The decorative lamp should have the appearance and color.

Main factors that should be considered in the design of the scheme

Natural environmental factors

Natural environmental factors include physical environment, chemical environment, biological environment and social environment.

The constituent elements of the physical environment include temperature, airflow, air pressure, sound, light, radiation, etc. When they are in a natural state, they will give people direct stimulation, and people will get feelings to make behavioral reflections. The most direct factor in contact with landscape lighting is "light." Light is a language that can express the architect's design philosophy and artistic pursuits; light is an invisible software that controls the functional operation of cities and buildings and the realization of color; light is the "fourth dimension of architecture." Therefore, we should take the initiative to understand the light, observe the light, use the light, actively participate in the design of light, and integrate light into planning and creation.

The chemical environment includes various gases, water, dust, chemicals and other factors. The oxidation of the lamps by the air, the corrosion of the water by the lamps, and the obstruction of the dust by the light all have an effect on the final result. The choice of lamps requires a waterproof and dustproof rating.

The biological environment consists of animals, plants, organisms, and microorganisms. Humans belong to living things. When designing a building, the plant species, growth status, distribution, and changing laws should be considered. It is also necessary to assist the surrounding flowers, trees, rest facilities, etc. to form a complete lighting.

The social environment refers to the human environment centered on interpersonal relationships. Covering a wide range of content, has an impact on landscape design.

Human environmental factors

It is a comprehensive and comprehensive ecological environment including politics, art, science, religion, and aesthetics.

The environment is cultural accumulation that slowly affects the environment. The fixed environment includes buildings, bridges, lights, fountains, lawns, sculptures, etc. The landscape designer's lighting design is to create an atmosphere, a culture that is ready to go. This culture can't be seen or touched, and it can be felt from it and affects the state of mind. If the lighting of the architectural landscape is too technical, it will make people feel blunt. Ignoring the state of culture, people feel that they are passively accepting. The focus of landscape lighting should be natural and harmonious. Therefore, designers should consider the layout, lines, colors, proportions, scales, texture, light, rhythm and rhythm of architecture and landscape. Let the viewer feel natural, take the initiative to find, dig, experience, and ponder the taste.

Builder, investor factor

The market economy determines that the owners must start from their respective economic interests, and they adopt different attitudes towards the implementation of lighting projects. Moreover, the depth of understanding of architecture and landscape lighting by individual owners and the differences in individual thinking, consciousness, hobbies and aesthetic views have formed colorful lighting effects.

Color is closely related to people's emotions and is also within the builder's investor factor. Blue makes people feel peaceful and satisfied; yellow gives people a sense of brilliance and excitement; red makes people eager to win and rejuvenate; red and green interweave makes people feel strong, reliable and determined; light blue can make people feel safe And self-respect; warm colors such as red, orange, and yellow can make people excited, warm and so on. The building facade should be carefully selected from cool colors such as green, blue and purple. Improper use makes people feel gloomy and cold.

Technical level of lighting equipment

Attention should be paid to the application of high-tech and high-tech lighting equipment in landscape lighting projects. Technological innovation: innovation and differentiation, the use of new technology, new light sources, new materials, the application of high technology. You should also consider the intelligence factor.

Feasibility factor of the program

Including the investor, the designer's ideas and intentions, and the site environment.

Designers should have a comprehensive understanding of the landscape's attributes, functions, environment, viewpoints, shape features, architectural styles and architectural finishes. It is possible to analyze the several viewpoints of the light---the four directions of far, near, high, low and surrounding, set the main viewpoint and the best viewpoint, and start from this to conceive the overall effect and specific scheme of the landscape lighting.

The scene environment includes the brightness of the landscape background, the lighting of the local night scene, the local people's love and preference for color, and the power supply.

Passive to the software, controlling the functional operation of the city and the building and the realization of the color, the lighting now refers to the theme of the environmental road gauges closely linked; analyze the existing problems; the steps of construction, and landscape lighting Main content and steps of the design

According to the current regulations of China, the design is divided into two stages: preliminary design and construction drawing design. Because urban landscape lighting is different from other construction projects, it is a complex systematic project involving architecture, aesthetics, environmental science, human physiology and many other disciplines. It is the second creation of art life given by light carriers, with special emphasis on landscape art. The effect and cultural taste, so the urban landscape lighting engineering design process is divided into three stages: program design, preliminary design and construction drawing design. This article only analyzes what is easily overlooked in the design of the scheme.

The preparation of the programme design is very important. On the basis of a large number of on-site investigations, field surveys, design ideas, analysis and calculations, the overall guiding ideology of the design plan, the location of the main viewpoint and the key performance contents should be determined and expressed in words.

Establish the overall guiding ideology of the design plan

The overall guiding ideology of the design is the basis and standard of the design. Including the relationship between the various landscape elements in the design object, the relationship between the design object and the environment, the theme idea to be expressed by the design scheme, the brightness standard of the design light, the color of the light source, and the like.

It should also include the status quo and analysis: including the situation of the lighting place, and analyze the existing problems.

Analyze the location and land use, clarify the geographical location, and the environmental conditions related to it; analyze the scene, layout, and write the functional layout, with particular emphasis on analyzing its functional role.

Establish the location of the primary viewpoint

For a single building, it generally refers to the direction of the street or to the direction of important institutions; for a certain area, to find the direction of the axis or the direction of the main line of the area. Find out the central area and main viewing lines, main sights. It is very important to think about each other. Winning, rejuvenating youth, light, radiation, and analyzing the behavioral psychology of tourists: analyzing the best time, best perspective and psychological feelings of visitors. Really people-oriented.

Determine key performance content

Each attraction or building has its own unique design and intent. Especially landmarks and essays. To strictly grasp this point, as the top priority of the use of lighting, through careful and exaggerated techniques to highlight the key points, finishing the finishing touch.

General idea

Write design ideas, performance techniques, static and dynamic states, lighting effects descriptions, etc.

Express detail design

To find out the details, carry out feature analysis, program intention, and program statement. Which part to deal with, the specific practice should be clearly stated.

Determine the level of light (brightness)

Be sure to determine a modest photo (brightness) value. There are two factors to consider. Lighting prospects: that is, the object being taken. Its color and reflective properties. Be sure to consider its inherent color to avoid contrast. For light transmissive objects, the light transmission coefficient and the reflection coefficient should be considered. Background lighting: refers to the ambient light of the object being illuminated and the lighting of adjacent buildings or landscapes. Brightness is always relative, depending on the background, and changes with the environment. A brighter background requires more light to achieve the desired effect, and a darker background requires less light. In short, to highlight the foreground, we must make the brightness of the lighting foreground higher than the brightness of the background.

Determine lighting methods, lighting sources, lamps

There are many ways to illuminate the landscape. There is no fixed mode, and it must be determined according to the specific conditions of the object being illuminated. A large number of engineering practice surfaces, using a multi-dimensional space lighting method is better than a single method.

The determination of the illumination source and the luminaire is very important. The scheme must indicate what light source, luminaire, and what lighting method is used to achieve the environmental effect.

Expression of other content

The application of color light, lighting control system design, maintenance management measures design, engineering budget calculation, and expected lighting effect map are all indispensable in the lighting design scheme text.

Special emphasis on rendering problems:

Landscape lighting design is also simulated using colored renderings, but the renderings are only the author's subjective imagination. For each individual creative solution implementation, relying on the lighting design, including lamp type, power, lamp position, projection direction and calculation data, etc., the results of the implementation of the lighting plan can achieve the desired effect, can not rely solely on Effect chart. Therefore, the real effect map must be drawn through the calculated data of the light intensity distribution. Otherwise it will cause unexpected difficulties in construction.

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